Skip to content

References and bibliography


[Note: NPEC core author group bolded]


1. The Placement Evaluation Tool (PET)

Cooper, S., Cant, R., Waters, D., Luders, E., Henderson, A., Willetts, G., Tower, M., Reid Searl, K., Ryan, C., & Hood, K. (2020). Measuring the quality of nursing clinical placements and the development of the Placement Evaluation Tool (PET) in a mixed methods co-design project. BMC Nursing,19, 101.  [Open access]

Luders, E., Cooper, S., Cant, R., Waters, D., Henderson, A., Willetts, G., Tower, M., & Reid-Searl, K. (2020.) Nursing degree students’ clinical placement experiences in Australia: A survey design. Nurse Education in Practice, 54, 103112.

2. The Patient Safety in Nursing Education Questionnaire [PaSNEQ]

Tella, S., Smith, N-J., Partanen, P., Jamookeeah, D., Lamidi, M-L., & Turunen, H. (2015). Learning to ensure patient safety in clinical settings: Comparing Finnish and British nursing students’ perceptions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(19-20): 2954-2964.

Tella, S., Smith, N-J., Partanen, P. & Turunen, H. (2015). Learning patient safety in academic settings: a comparative study of Finnish and British nursing students’ perceptions. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 12: 154-164. DOI: 10.1111/wvn.12088


A list of publications related to the quality/evaluation of student clinical placements. (NPEC CORE authors bolded).

Chu, G., Pitt, V., Cant, R., Johnson, A., & Inder, K. (2024). Students’ evaluation of professional experience placement quality in a pre-registration nursing programme: A cross-sectional survey. Nurse Education in Practice, 103877.

Cant, R., Ryan, C., Hughes, L., Luders, E. & Cooper, S. (2021). What helps, what hinders? Undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of clinical placements based on a thematic synthesis of literature. Sage Open Nursing, 7:1-20. DOI: 10.1177/23779608211035845

Cooper, S., Cant, R., Luders, E., Waters, D., Henderson, A., Hood, K., Reid-Searl, K.; Ryan, C., Tower, M., & Willetts, G. (2020). The nominal group technique: Generating consensus in nursing research. Journal of Nursing Education, 59: 65–67.

Hughes, L. J., Johnston, A. N., & Mitchell, M. L. (2019). How organisational processes influence assessors’ experiences of marginal students’ performances in clinical assessments. Collegian, 26(2): 242-249.

Hughes, L. J., Mitchell, M. L., Jones, C., & Johnston, A. N. (2020). Measuring assessors’ experiences of grading marginal student performances in clinical assessments–The assess-safe tool: Development and preliminary psychometric validation. Nurse Education in Practice, 43: 102701.

Hughes, L. J., Mitchell, M. L., & Johnston, A. N. (2021). Moving forward: Barriers and enablers to failure to fail – A mixed methods meta-integration. Nurse Education Today, 98: 104666.

Ryan, C., & McAllister, M. (2019). The experiences of clinical facilitators working with nursing students in Australia: An interpretive description. Collegian, 26(2): 281–287.

Ryan, C., Cant, R., Hughes, L., Luders, E., Cooper, S., Ossenberg, C., Ahchay, D. & Fitzgerald, M. (2022). Upskilling Australian registered nurses to facilitate undergraduate nursing student clinical placement experiences. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39 (3) June-August 2022. (Open access).


Cooper S., et al. Opening of the National Placement Evaluation Centre (NPEC). Council of Deans of Nursing and Midwifery (Australia and NZ). Webinar. 25/8/22.  154 attendees.

Hughes, L., Ossenberg, C., Ryan, C., Luders, E., Ahchay, D., Cant, R., Hopmans, R., Strickland, K., Fitzgerald, M. & Cooper, S. (2022). Enhancing the quality of nursing/midwifery work-integrated learning in Australia through the development of the National Placement Evaluation Centre (N-PEC). Australia and New Zealand Association for Health Professional Educators (ANZAHPE) Conference (Online) July, 2022.

Ryan, C., Cooper, S., Hughes, L. Ossenberg, C. and the NPEC Core Team. (2022). Influencing key stakeholders to enhance the quality of nursing and midwifery work-integrated learning in Australia – the National Placement Evaluation centre (N-PEC). NETNEP Conference, Sitges, Spain, October, 2022.

Cooper, S. An approach to measuring the quality of clinical placements. Development of the Placement Evaluation Tool (PET). Australian Pharmacy Council and ANMAC Colloquium 5/5/21.



Burgess, A., & Mellis, C. (2015). Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 6, 373–381.

Chigavazira, J., Fernandez, R., Mackay, M., & Lapkin, S. (2018). Adaptation and validation of the clinical supervision self-assessment tool among registered nurses.  Nurse Education Today, 70, 28-33.

Clarkson, M. (2015). Walk alongside: co-designing social initiatives with people experiencing vulnerabilities. Melbourne, Victorian Council of Social Services (VCOSS) 2015. [report] At:

Courtney‐Pratt, H., FitzGerald, M., Ford, K., Marsden, K., & Marlow, A. (2012). Quality clinical placements for undergraduate nursing students: a cross‐sectional survey of undergraduates and supervising nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(6), 1380-1390.

Currie, J., Grootemaat, P., Samsa, P., Halcomb, E., & Thompson, C. (2019). Topic 3: Clinical skill development. [Report: nursing review]. Centre for Health Service Development, Australian Health Services Research Institute, University of Wollongong. At:

Currie, J., Thompson, C., Grootemaat, P., Andersen, P., Finnegan, A., Carter, M., & Halcomb, E. (2022). A scoping review of clinical skill development of preregistration registered nurses in Australia and five other English‐speaking countries. Journal of Clinical Nursing.

Dale, B., Leland, A., & Dale, J. G. (2013). What factors facilitate good learning experiences in clinical studies in nursing?; bachelor students’ perceptions. ISRN Nursing, 2013, D 628679,

Department of Health & Human Services Victoria. (2015). The Resource Guide; Implementing the National Clinical Supervision Competency Resource and the Clinical Supervision Skills Review Tool. [report] Available at:

Department of Health Queensland. (no date). Best Practice Clinical Learning Environments: Overview of the Evidence and Available Resources [report] At:

Doyle, K., K. Sainsbury, S. Cleary, L. Parkinson, D. Vindigni, I. McGrath & Cruickshank, M. (2017). Happy to help/happy to be here: Identifying components of successful clinical placements for undergraduate nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 49: 27-32.

Ekstedt, M., Lindblad, M., & Löfmark, A. (2019). Nursing students’ perception of the clinical learning environment and supervision in relation to two different supervision models – A comparative cross-sectional study. BMC Nursing, 18: 49.

Ford, K., Courtney-Pratt, H., Marlow, A., Cooper, J., Williams, D., & Mason, R. (2016). Quality clinical placements: The perspectives of undergraduate nursing students and their supervising nurses. Nurse Education Today, 37, 97-102.

Health Workforce Australia (2014). National Clinical Supervision Competency Resource. (report). Adelaide, Health Workforce Australia.

Jarvelainen, M., Cooper, S., & Jones, J. (2018) Nursing students’ educational experience in regional Australia: Reflections on acute events. A qualitative review of clinical incidents. Nurse Education in Practice, 31: 188-193.

Jessee, M. A. (2016). Influences of sociocultural factors within the clinical learning environment on students’ perceptions of learning: An integrative review. Journal of Professional Nursing 32(6): 463-486.

McAllister, M., & Flynn. T. (2016). The Capabilities of Nurse Educators (CONE) questionnaire: Development and evaluation. Nurse Education Today, 39:122-127.

Miller, L., & Cooper, S. (2016) A registered nurse in 20 weeks. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal July, 24:1.

Missen, K., McKenna, L., & Beauchamp, A., (2016). Registered nurses’ perceptions of new nursing graduates’ clinical competence: A systematic integrative review. Nursing &. Health Sciences, 18 (2): 143–153.

Paliadelis, P., & Wood, P., (2016). Learning from clinical placement experience: Analysing nursing students’ final reflections in a digital storytelling activity. Nurse Education in Practice, 20: 39–44.

Price, B. (2019). Improving nursing students’ experience of clinical placements.  Nursing Standard, 34(9): 43-49. doi: 10.7748/ns.2019e11328

Russell, K. (2019). The art of clinical supervision: Strategies to assist with the delivery of student feedback.  Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(3): 6-13.

Ryan, C., & McAllister, M. (2019). The experiences of clinical facilitators working with nursing students in Australia: An interpretive description. Collegian, 26(2): 281–287.

Sanders L (2008) An evolving map of design practice and design research.  At:

Tella, S., Liukka, M., Jamookeeah, D., Smith, N-J., Partanen, P. & Turunen, H. (2014). What do nursing students learn about patient safety? An integrative literature review. Journal of Nursing Education, 53: 7-13.

Towell-Barnard, A., Coventry, L., Foster, L., Davis, S., Twigg, D. E., Bharat, C., & Boston, J. (2020). The psychometric validation of the quality practical experience (QPE) instruments (nurses and student nurse) to evaluate clinical supervision of undergraduate student nurses.  Nurse Education in Practice, 43, 102697. Van Nguyen, N. B., Forbes, H, Mohebbi, M., & Duke, M. (2017). Development and validation of an instrument to measure nurse educator perceived confidence in clinical teaching. Nursing & Health Sciences, 19(4): 498-508.


Training programs are available for preceptor/mentor student supervisors’ professional development Table 1 below. Reproduced with permission from Ryan et al (2021).

Table 1: Australian nursing clinical supervision education programmes

Best Practice Clinical Learning Environment (BPCLE) (2021) Project funding: Victorian Health Department Open access and also subscription-only resourcesWeb based; topics include
– Planning the placement
– Supervisor duties
– Delivering feedback
– Developing service-education provider relationships
– Creating positive learning environments
ClinEd Aus (Enabling Clinical Education Skills) (2022) Project Funding Australian Government/ Queensland Government and six partner Queensland UniversitiesOpen Access Online Modules and associated quizzes, blogs.Online; topics include
– Communication
– Assessment
– Feedback
– Clinical reasoning
– Critical thinking
– Reflective practice
– Working with diverse students
– Supporting students in complex practice contexts (e.g. NDIS)
Health Education and Training Institute (HETI) Project funding; NSW Health  NSW health employees onlyOnline and face to face
Unable to access
Supporting Health Students in the Workplace (UTAS) (2014) Project Funding: Australian Government (University of Tasmania)OnlineOnline modules, videos and quizzes
– Communication
– Learning styles
– Assessment
– Constructive feedback
– Positive learning environments  
[Table 1] Source: Ryan, C., Cant, R., Hughes, L., Luders, E., Cooper, S., Ossenberg, C., Ahchay, D. & Fitzgerald, M. (2022). Upskilling Australian registered nurses to facilitate undergraduate nursing student clinical placement experiences. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39 (3) June- August 2022.